Question your Answers

There is an important difference between getting unstuck and finding the answer.

Remember when you were solving word problems in high school algebra? Do you remember that feeling of being stuck? Going to the back of the textbook for the answer did not help you get unstuck. The goal of getting unstuck is to reorient your relationship to the problem, which makes it possible to find an answer.

Getting unstuck liberates us from our thinking traps and restores momentum. Fundamentally, getting unstuck means learning something new.

To get unstuck, we need one or more of the following

  • New data,
  • New perspectives
  • New insights.

The Unstuck Minds Compass reorients your relationship to your most persistent challenges by equipping you with four strategies for recognizing potential thinking traps and loosening their grip. Taken together, the four strategies provide data, perspectives and insights that change the way you define the problem. A single question headlines each strategy of the Unstuck Minds Compass. Let’s use each question to work an example.

Imagine that you are part of an employee engagement task force sponsored by your organization’s Human Resources (HR) department. The team has concluded that one key to greater employee engagement is frequent, ongoing coaching conversations between direct reports and their managers. The task force has implemented several initiatives to encourage coaching conversations. After each program or training course, employee focus groups report sporadic improvement, but the improvements peter out within weeks. Meanwhile, the employee engagement scores haven’t improved. The task force has defined the problem as an inability to get managers to conduct regular coaching conversations with their employees. The team feels stuck.

The Four Questions of the Unstuck Minds Compass

  1. What is the bigger picture?

Contextual Inquiry encourages us to zoom out and consider what is changing in the environment that we haven’t paid enough attention to. Let’s say that by asking about the bigger picture, we learn that…

  • Lower unemployment rates and aggressive recruiting are making it harder to retain our most talented employees
  • The increasing importance of learning how to adapt to a volatile and complex business environment might mean that mastering tried-and-true practices has become a lower priority for leadership development
  1. What is causing our dissatisfaction with the current situation?

Critical Inquiry directs our attention toward the underlying and hidden systemic issues that might be responsible for the situation we want to change. Let’s say that by asking about the causes of our dissatisfaction, we learn that…

  • Coaching in our organization is perceived as punitive rather than a way to build trust, rapport and capability
  • Our managers don’t care as much about the employee engagement surveys as the leaders of our HR department do
  1. What needs and perspectives are we missing?

Collaborative Inquiry asks us to consider the influences of social networks and diverse life experiences on our challenge. Let’s say that by uncovering needs and seeking out diverse perspectives, we learn that…

  • Millennials and their managers have misaligned priorities and values when it comes to performance expectations and career planning
  • We discover that our highest potential, early career employees view their current role as the place they’ll learn the skills they need for their next role
  1. How else might we define our challenge?

Creative Inquiry challenges us to question our assumptions and consider alternative ways to frame our problems given the data, perspectives and insights we’ve gathered by responding to the first three questions.

Perhaps we have come to realize that focusing on changing the behavior of our managers may be part of the problem. We originally defined our challenge as, “How do we get our managers to conduct regular coaching conversations with their employees?” Maybe we should consider defining our challenge as, “How might we help our employees realize their potential?”

The Unstuck Minds Compass: How to recognize and avoid thinking traps

Imagine you have a persistent and mysterious stomachache. Your family physician is stumped. Now imagine that you could convene a dream team of health professionals to sit together like a panel of experts and ask you questions about your condition. Maybe you would select a gastroenterologist, a psychologist, a nutritionist and a mind-body healer. Each expert takes turns posing questions about your condition. As you would expect, each of them asks questions based on their training and worldview. You will be drawn to some questions and you will reject others.

In the same way, the Unstuck Minds Compass comes at your most persistent dilemmas from different directions. Four different thinking systems ensure a comprehensive approach to understanding the nature of your dilemma. The four strategies of the compass don’t supply answers; they introduce questions you haven’t been thinking about. You will be drawn to some questions and you will reject others.

Critical Inquiry

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Critical inquiry helps us get unstuck by ensuring we don’t take problems at face value. For example, we can take medicine to relieve a headache. The medicine makes us feel better, but we are left wondering why we periodically get headaches. If we take action to resolve a problem and the problem returns, then we start looking for patterns. Critical inquiry helps us recognize patterns in our persistent problems and helps us explain why the patterns exist.

Critical inquiry helps us avoid solving the wrong problem.

Contextual Inquiry

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Contextual inquiry helps us get unstuck by encouraging us to look at the big picture. Sometimes we follow our comfortable routines without ever questioning whether the routines still make sense. For example, improving the durability of a video cassette is a waste of time if people stop buying video cassette recorders. Contextual inquiry helps us notice changes in the environment that alert us to what’s coming. Contextual inquiry allows us to reevaluate how we prioritize our attention and resources.

Contextual inquiry reduces the risk of missing something important.

Collaborative Inquiry

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Collaborative inquiry helps us get unstuck by drawing our attention to the networks of people and groups that might play a role in improving our situation. When ideas and feedback feel unwelcome or when sharing them feels unsafe, the organization can only recycle familiar opinions. Even a high quality strategy or solution won’t improve things if people are committed to maintaining the status quo. Collaborative inquiry reminds us of the power of social networks and the value of hearing what people are thinking and feeling.

Collaborative inquiry makes it easier for people to take concerted action.

Creative Inquiry

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Creative inquiry helps us get unstuck by provoking insights and surfacing hidden needs. Sometimes we get stuck because we insist on a business case for new ideas rather than encouraging experimentation and learning from failure. If the only ideas we are interested in are the ones that feel like a sure thing, we will only hear about ways of improving the status quo. Creative inquiry encourages us to question our assumptions about what people need and about our self-imposed limitations.

Creative inquiry increases the novelty of our options.

Using the compass helps you think differently about your dilemma while simultaneously teaching you how to deal more effectively with complexity and uncertainty. When people use the compass together they not only develop their thinking skills, they develop an appreciation for how others in the organization think and feel about the situation you want to improve.

Measuring for Improvement versus Measuring for Control

In 1979, Domino’s advertised their famous, “30 minutes or free” guarantee. In 1993, Dominoes owner, Thomas Monaghan ended the guarantee citing perceptions that the policy encouraged the pizza delivery drivers to speed and drive recklessly. While restaurants offering food delivery learned their lesson from Domino’s, the idea that a customer can expect their order in about thirty minutes persists. I worked with a global chain of pizza restaurants years ago that felt pressured by what they referred to as the customer’s “30-minute mindset.” They wanted to speed up their operations, but they did not want to hold the drivers accountable to a standard that might encourage unsafe driving. Instead, they developed a standard for the time it took from an order being placed until the pizza was sliced and in a box waiting for the driver; the company referred to the span of time from order to box as the “in-store time.” They reasoned that the overall wait time for a customer could be reduced through a focused effort to reduce the in-store time.

The company created a bonus for restaurant managers who kept their overall in-store time below a certain number for a full month. After the incentive program had been in place for several months, a few district managers began noticing some unusual patterns in the various reports they received each month on restaurant performance in their respective districts. Some of the restaurants that had the lowest overall in-store time also showed a decline in sales. At the same time, the call center that logged complaint calls from customers had noticed that the complaints about late orders had declined, but the complaints about poor service when placing the order had increased.

When the district managers visited the restaurants with the best in-store times they noticed something disturbing. At the busiest times, the employees responsible for taking phone orders seemed to be ignoring customers who were on hold waiting to place their order. The district managers could see the blinking lights on the phone indicating that someone was waiting to place an order. It turned out that some of their restaurant managers had directed their staff to stop taking orders if the production line got backed up. A pizza oven can only handle so many pizzas at one time and you can’t speed up the cook time for a pizza. If the oven can’t accept any more pizzas, it creates a bottleneck and pizzas ready to go in the oven have to wait while the in-store time clock ticks away. If you want to ensure that the oven does not get backed up, just slow down the number of orders coming in.

The story of the pizza company illustrates a common organizational trap that I would summarize as the confusion between measuring for improvement and measuring for control. When a person purchases a fitness tracker and begins monitoring the steps they take each day, they want to measure something for improvement. If your car insurance company offers you a discount if you install a sensor that monitors your driving habits, they might advertise it as a way to improve safety, but they also want to control their costs. When you measure for improvement, you put the data in the hands of the people who can make use of it to change for the better. When you measure for control, you use the data to make comparisons that have consequences imposed on people by others with authority.

When I am a student and you grade my test, I learn how well I have mastered the subject. If the test score is only for me and not used for any other purpose, then it is a measure for improvement. If an administrator’s bonus is linked to my performance on the test and my score becomes a data point in the school district’s rating and the school district’s rating becomes a data point in determining property taxes, suddenly there’s a lot more than improving my mastery of the subject at stake.

The distinction I am making between measuring for improvement and measuring for control is elegantly explained by a principle known as Goodhart’s Law. A popularized statement of the law developed by the economist Charles Goodhart goes like this: When a measure becomes a target, it ceases to be a good measure. Goodhart’s original formulation from his 1981 paper on monetary policy in the United Kingdom is less pithy, but more consistent with the distinction I am trying to make. Goodhart wrote, “Any observed statistical regularity will tend to collapse once pressure is placed upon it for control purposes.” Consider the law in the context of public school test scores. One might argue that putting pressure on teachers and students to meet test score performance targets will moderate the degree to which the test scores can be used to reach valid conclusions about what students are learning.

Measurement is the tool of choice for managing performance, yet we rarely stop to question whether or not we are paying attention to the right measures, or whether the very act of measurement creates dysfunctional behaviors. Through critical inquiry, we may discover that we have been equating success with what is easiest to measure rather than equating success with what we want to accomplish. Because of our addiction to managing through measurement, we find the closest quantifiable substitute for what we really want and then focus on measuring the substitute.

Eventually, the focus on the measure replaces a focus on the goal that the measure stands for. For example, we don’t want a society comprised of people with high grade point averages; we want a society comprised of well-educated citizens.

What’s worse, when authority figures incentivize achievement of a metric that substitutes for what we really want, Goodhart’s law kicks in and we end up with data tainted by people gaming the system.